Difference Between Direct and Indirect Taxes in India
Tax is a charge imposed and collected by the central or/and state government to pay for the goods and services it provides including schools, hospitals, infrastructure, military production and law enforcement. The tax comes into the picture when there is an ownership of an asset, sale of product or service or where income arises. The amount of tax paid by a taxable person fairly depends upon its spending and earnings.
The scope of this content includes
Types of Taxes in India
Types of Taxes in India
Taxes are broadly catalogued into two categories: Direct and Indirect Taxes
Direct taxes are those taxes that are directly imposed on the person from whom it is collected. These taxes completely depend on the income and wealth of a taxpayer.
Direct taxes include the following:
Income Tax: Central government imposes and collects the income tax on the income of a taxable person. Income tax slabs have been structured depending on the various income groups & types.
Corporation Tax: Domestic corporate is liable to pay corporation tax on the profits earned during a particular period. Corporation tax has a flat rate structure.
- Lower tax burden on the lower income group.
- Wealth distribution is equal and just under direct taxation
- Direct tax rates act as an anti-inflationary tool
- Direct taxes might restrain savings and investments
- Filing & Payment procedure of direct taxes is bit complicated
The indirect taxes are imposed on the supplier but the ultimate burden is transferred to the ultimate consumer of the goods and services as the case may be. This tax is imposed and collected by the Central government or State/UT government or both.
The major indirect tax in India includes
Goods and Services Tax: 17 indirect taxes have been subsumed under the GST law which was implemented on 1st July 2017.
- Central Excise Duty (CENVAT)
- Service Tax
- The Excise Duty levied under the Medicinal and Toiletries Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955
- Additional Excise Duties
- Additional Customs Duty, commonly known as Countervailing Duty (CVD)
- VAT / Sales tax
- Luxury tax
- Entertainment tax (unless it is levied by the local bodies)
- Taxes on lottery, betting and gambling
- State Cesses and Surcharges on the supply of goods and services
- Entry Tax
- Purchase Tax
- Higher revenue to the government
- Transparent tax administration
- Increased prices of goods and services
- Equal tax burden irrespective of Income
The taxes collection completely depends on the nature of taxes. Direct taxes (income tax and corporation tax) are imposed and collected by the central government. Payment of income tax is monitored by the Income Tax Department. Whereas, Indirect Tax (Goods and Services Tax) is imposed and collected by the Central Government or State/UT Government or both. GST council is chaired by the finance minister along with state finance ministers for governing the GST rates, rules and regulations.
Direct and Indirect taxes differ on various parameters
Tax payment and burden
The taxpayer is liable to pay the direct tax.
The seller or the service provider is liable to pay tax and the burden is transferred to the end consumer
The tax liability amount depends on the income group of the taxpayer
The tax liability amount depends on the type of goods & services supplied
Nature of taxes
Income or profit based tax
Consumption or destination based tax
Tax evasion is possible due to the lack of administration, however measures are taken to reduce it to minimum
Tax evasion is possible due to common practices followed by tax payers, however measures are taken to reduce it to minimum
It is applicable on the taxpayers who falls under respective tax group or bracket
It is applicable on all the taxpayers irrespective of tax bracket